Animal Farm

Animal Farm.
Animal Farm It is the history of a revolution that went wrong and of the
excellent excuses that were forthcoming at every step for the perversion of

edition of Animal Farm in 1945. His simple and tragic fable has become a
world-famous classic of English prose.

George Orwell is the pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair. The change of the
name corresponded to a profound shift in Orwells life-style, in which he
changed from a pillar of the British imperial establishment into a literary
and political rebel.

Orwell is famous for his novels Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-four.
In 1944 Orwell finished Animal Farm, a political fable based on the story
of the Russian Revolution and its betrayal by Joseph Stalin. In this book
the group of barnyard animals overthrow and chase off their exploitative
human masters and set up an egalitarian society of their own. Eventually
the animals intelligent and power-loving leaders, the pigs, subvert the
revolution and form a dictatorship whose bondage is even more oppressive a
heartless than that of their former masters.

Orwell derived his inspiration from the mood of Britain in the 40s.
Animal Farm confronted the unpalatable truth that the victory over Fascism
would in some respects unwittingly aid the advance of totalitarianism ,
while in Nineteen Eighty-four warns the dangers to the individual of
enroaching collectivism. In these last, bleak fables Orwell attempted to
make the art of political writing in the traditions of Swift and Defoe. The
most world-known Gullivers Travels. This satire? First published in 1726,
relates to the adventures of Lemuel Gulliver, a surgeon on a merchant ship,
and it shows the vices and defects of man and human institutions. So far
as satire has become the subject of our research-work, it is necessary we
look at the nature and sources of comic.

What is comic? Similar considerations apply to the historically
earlier forms and theories of the comic. In Aristotles view laughter was
intimately related to ugliness and debasement. Cicero held that the
province of the ridiculous lay in the certain baseness and deformity. In
19th century Alexander Bain, an early experimental psychologist, thought
alone these lines not in physical effects alone, but in everything where
a man can achieve a stroke of superiority, in surpassing or discomforting a
rival is the disposition of laughter apparent. Sidney notes that while
laughter comes from delight not all objects of delight cause laugh. We are
ravished in delight to see a fair woman and yet are far from being moved to
laughter. We laugh at deformed creatures, wherein certainly we can
delight. Immanuel Kant realized that what causes laughter is the sudden
transformation of a tense expectation into nothing. This can be achieved
by incongruity between form and content, it is when two contradictory
statements have been telescoped into a line whose homely, admonitory sound
conveys the impression of a popular adage. In a similar way nonsense verse
achieves its effect by pretending to make sense. It is interesting to note
that the most memorable feature of Animal Farm the final revision of the
animals revolutionary commandments: All animals are equal but some animals
are more equal than others, is based on that device.

Other sources of innocent laughter are situations in which the part
and the home change roles and attention becomes focused on a detail torn
out of the functional defect on which its meaning depends. A birds wing,
comrades, is an organ of propulsion not of manipulation. Orwell displaces
attention from meaning to spelling. One of the most popular comic devices
is impersonation. The most aggressive form of impersonation is parody,
designed to deflate hollow pretense, to destroy illusion and to undermine
pathos by harping on the weaknesses of the victim. Orwell resorts to that
device describing Squealer: The best known among them was a small fat pig
named Squealer with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements and
a shrill voice. He was a brilliant talker:

A succession of writers from the ancient Greek dramatist Aristophanes
through Swift to George Orwell, have used this technique to focus attention
on deformities of society that, blunted by habit , are taken for granted.
Satire assumes standards against which professions and practices vicious,
the ironic perception darkens and deepens. The element of the incongruous
point in the direction of the grotesque which implies an admixture of
elements that do not march. The ironic gaze eventually penetrates to a
vision of the grotesque quality of experience, marked by the discontinuity
of word and deed and the total lack of coherence between the appearance and
reality. This suggests one of the extreme limits of comedy, the satiric
extreme in which the sense of the discrepancy between things as they are
and things they might be or ought to be has reached to the borders of the

Early theories of humor, including even those of Bergson and Freud,
treated it as an isolated phenomenon, without attempting to throw light on
the intimate connections between the comic and tragic, between laughter and
crying. Yet these two domains of creative activity form a continuum with no
sharp boundaries between wit and ingenuity. The confrontation between
diverse codes of behavior may yield comedy, tragedy or new psychological
insights. Humor arouses malice and provides a harmless outlet for it.
Comedy and tragedy, laughter and weeping yields further clues of this
challenging problem. The detached malice of the comic impersonator that
turns pathos into bathos, tragedy into travesty. Comedy is an imitation of
common errors of our life, which representeth in the most ridiculous and
scornful sorts that may be.

Surely satire reflects changes in political and cultural climate and
it had its ups and downs. George Orwells satire of the 20th century is
much more savage than that of Jonathan Swift in 18th century. It is only in
the mid 20th century that the savage and the irrational have come to be
viewed as part of the normative condition of the humanity rather than as
tragic aberration from it. The savage and irrational amount to grotesque
parodies of human possibility, ideally conceived. Thus it is the 20th
century novelists have recognized the tragicomic nature of the contemporary
human image and predicament, and the principal mode of representing both is
the grotesque. This may take various forms. In Animal Farm it takes a form
of apocalyptic nightmare of tyranny and terror.

The satire in Animal Farm has two important aims both based on the
related norms of limitation and moderation. First, Animal Farm exposes and
criticizes extremist political attitudes as dangerous
.. !!!!!