Новости Словари Конкурсы Бесплатные SMS Знакомства Подари звезду
В нашей
базе уже




The Institute of Ecology, Linguistics and Low Degree work "BRITISH MONARCHY AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS" Dunaeva Nina Moscow, 2003 Contents Part One INTRODUCTION The United kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland 4 Direct meaning of the word "monarchy" 6 The British constitutional monarchy 7 Part Two HISTORY OF THE MONARCHY Kings and Queens of England 9 The Anglo-Saxon Kings 9 The Normans 23 The Angevins 30 The Plantagenets 33 The Lancastrians 42 The Yorkists 46 The Tudors 48 The Stuarts 58 The Commonwealth Interregnum 63 The Hanoverians 75 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 85 The House of Windsor 87 Part Three THE MONARCHY TODAY The Queen's role 91 Queen's role in the modern State 91 Queen and Commonwealth 91 Royal visits 92 The Queen's working day 92 Ceremonies and pageantry 92 The Queen's ceremonial duties 93 Royal pageantry and traditions 93 Royal succession 93 The Royal Household 93 Royal Household departments 94 Recruitment 94 Anniversaries 95 Royal finances 95 Head of State expenditure 2000-01 95 Sources of funding 96 Financial arrangements of The Prince of Wales 96 Finances of the other members of the Royal Family 96 Taxation 97 Royal assets 97 Symbols 98 National anthem 98 Royal Warrants 99 Bank notes and coinage 100 Stamps 102 Coats of Arms 103 Great Seal 104 Flags 105 Crowns and jewels 105 Transport 105 Cars 106 Carriages 107 The Royal Train 108 Royal air travel 109 Part Four THE ROYAL FAMILY Members of the Royal Family 111 HM The Queen 111 HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 111 HRH The Prince of Wales and family 112 HRH The Duke of York 112 TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex 112 HRH Princess Royal 112 HRH Princess Alice 113 TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester 113 TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent 113 TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent 114 HRH Princess Alexandra 114 Memorial Plaque HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother 115 HRH The Princess Margaret 115 Diana, Princess of Wales 115 Part Five ART AND RESIDENCES The Royal Collection 116 About the Royal Collection 116 The Royal Collection Trust 117 Royal Collection Enterprises 117 Publishing 118 Royal Residences 118 Royal Collection Galleries 118 Loans 119 The Royal Residences 119 About the Royal Residences 119 Buckingham Palace 120 The Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace 120 The Royal Mews 121 Windsor Castle 121 Frogmore 122 The Palace of Holyroodhouse 122 Balmoral Castle 123 Sandringham House 123 St James's Palace 124 Kensington Palace 124 Historic residences 124 Bibliography 126 UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952) Government: The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a Parliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers, 26 bishops, and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected members. Supreme legislative power is vested in Parliament, which sits for five years unless sooner dissolved. The House of Lords was stripped of most of its power in 1911, and now its main function is to revise legislation. In Nov. 1999 hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort to make the body more democratic. The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the cabinet, headed by the prime minister. Prime Minister: Tony Blair (1997) Area: 94,525 sq mi (244,820 sq km) Population (2003 est.): 60,094,648 (growth rate: 0.1%); birth rate: 11.0/1000; infant mortality rate: 5.3/1000; density per sq mi: 636 Capital and largest city (2000 est.): London, 11,800,000 (metro. area) Other large cities: Birmingham, 1,009,100; Leeds, 721,800; Glasgow, 681,470; Liverpool, 479,000; Bradford, 477,500; Edinburgh, 441,620; Manchester, 434,600; Bristol, 396,600 Monetary unit: Pound sterling (?) Languages: English, Welsh, Scots Gaelic Ethnicity/race: English 81.5%; Scottish 9.6%; Irish 2.4%; Welsh 1.9%; Ulster 1.8%; West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8% Religions: Church of England (established church), Church of Wales (disestablished), Church of Scotland (established church-Presbyterian), Church of Ireland (disestablished), Roman Catholic, Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, Jewish Literacy rate: 99% (1978) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2000 est.): $1.36 trillion; per capita $22,800. Real growth rate: 3%. Inflation: 2.4%. Unemployment: 5.5%. Arable land: 25%. Agriculture: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish. Labor force: 29.2 million (1999); agriculture 1%, industry 19%, services 80% (1996 est.). Industries: machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods. Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land. Exports: $282 billion (f.o.b., 2000): manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco. Imports: $324 billion (f.o.b., 2000): manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: EU, U.S., Japan. Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 34.878 million (1997); mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998). Radio broadcast stations: AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998). Radios: 84.5 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995). Televisions: 30.5 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 245 (2000). Internet users: 19.47 million (2000). Transportation: Railways: total: 16,878 km (1996). Highways: total: 371,603 km; paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303 km of expressways); unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.). Waterways: 3,200 km. Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne. Airports: 489 (2000 est.). International disputes: Northern Ireland issue with Ireland (historic peace agreement signed 10 April
Умар.Ш. был тут !!!!!
давайте изгоним мат !!!
где инфааа?