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Маркетинг Business battle fiercely, making an enormous variety of products to
meet different customers’ needs. In many businesses, promotion is the key

product to a customer. To sell a product, promotional techniques must
communicate the uses, features, & benefits of the product. Here we will
look at different reasons for & approaches to promotion, When & why
companies use particular tools & strategies, & the special promotional
problems & solutions of small business.

Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tolls

In developing a promotional plan, marketers must consider the
company’s basic promotional objectives. They must develop promotional
strategies to reach those objectives. Then, as a part of their strategies,
they must choose among various promotional tools that may be used alone or
in combination

Promotional Objectives
You may think that the ultimate objective of any type of promotion is
to increase sales. You’re right. After all, the goal of any business is to
make money, & companies make money by making sales. However, marketers also
use promotion to communicate information, position products, & control
sales volume.

Communication of Information.
A very basic objective of promotion is to communicate information
from one person or organization to another. Consumers cannot buy a product
unless they have been informed about it.
Information may advise customers about the availability of a product.
It may educate them on the latest technological advances. Or it may
announce the candidacy of someone running for a government office.
Information may be communicated in writing (newspapers & magazines)
It may be communicated verbally (in person or over the telephone) Or it may
be communicated visually (television, a match book cover, or a billboard).
Today, the communication of information regarding a company’s products or
services is so important that markets try to place it wherever consumers
may be.

Product Positioning.
Another objective of promotion, Product Positioning, is to establish
an easily
identifiable image of a product in the minds of consumers. For example, by
selling only in

department stores, Lauder products have positioned themselves as more
upscale than cosmetics sold in drugstores. Given all the brands &
trademarks in the marketplace, it is impossible for an individual to
remember each one. Therefore, marketers seek a unique position in buyer’s
Positioning a product is difficult because the company is trying to
appeal to a specific segment of the market rather than to the market as a
whole. First, the company must identify which segments of a market could
would be likely purchasers of its product & who is competitors are. Only
then can it focus its promotional strategy on differentiating its product
from the competition’s, while appealing to its target audience.

Controlling Sales Volume.
Another objective of promotions is sales volume control. Many
companies such as Hallmark Cards, experience seasonal sales patterns. By
increasing its promotional activities in slow periods, the firm can achieve
a more stable sales volume throughout the year. As a result, it can keep
its production & distribution systems running evenly. Promotions can even
turn slow seasons into peak sales periods. For example, greeting card
companies & florists together have done much to create Grandparents’
day.The result has been increased consumer desire to send cards & flowers
to older relatives in the middle of what was a dry for these industries.

Promotional Strategies

Once a firm’s promotional objectives are clear, it must develop a
promotional strategy to achieve these objectives. Promotional strategies
may be of the push or pull variety. A company with a Push strategy will
aggressively push its product through wholesalers & retailers, who persuade
customers to buy it. In contrast, a company with Pull strategy appeals
directly to customers who demand the product from retailers, who in turn
demand the product from wholesalers.
Makers from industrial products most often use a Push strategy And
makers of consumer products most often use a Pull strategy. Many large
firms use a combination of the two strategies. For example, General Foods
uses advertising to create consumer demand(pull) for its cereals. It also
pushes wholesalers & retailers to stoke these products. Once the
promotional strategy has been determined, it guides the company’s choice of
promotional objectives & the types of promotional communicational tools
that will be used.

Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix

Based on these strategies, the firm must select the right promotional
tools. There are four basis types of promotional tools: Advertising,
Personal selling, Sales promotions, & Publicity & Public relations.
The best combination of these tools-the best promotional mix -
depends on many
factors. The company’s product, the costs of different tools versus the
promotional budget, & characteristics in the target audience all play a

The product. The nature of the product being promoted affect the mix
greatly. For example, advertising can reach a large number of widely
dispersed consumers. Thus it is used by makers of products that might be
purchased by anyone, like sunglasses, radios & snack foods. Companies
introducing new products also favor advertising because it reaches a large
number of people very quickly & can repeat a message many times. Personal
selling, on the other hand, is important when the product appeals to a very
specific audience, such as piping or pressure gauges for industrial

Cost of the Tolls. The cost of communication tools is also important.
Because personal selling is an expensive communicational tool, it is most
appropriate in marketing high-priced goods like computers for industrial
customers & homes for consumers. In contrast, advertising reaches more
customers per dollar spent.
A promotional mix that is good for one company is not really good for
another. For example, Frito -Lay can afford to spend millions of dollars on
advertising & consumer promotions to promote Ruffles Cajun Spice potato
chips nationally. But Zapps Potato Chips of Gramercy, Louisiana, the
innovator in Cajun flavor potato chips, must rely on personal selling &
publicity to promote its Cajun Craw-taters locally.

Promotion & the Buyer Decision Process. Another consideration in
establishing the promotional mix is the stage of the buyer decision process
that customers are in. Customers must first recogn
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