Новости Словари Конкурсы Бесплатные SMS Знакомства Подари звезду
В нашей
базе уже
59876
рефератов!
Логин

Пароль

History of democracy of the USA

History of democracy of the USA.
History of democracy of the USA THE HISTORY OF DEMOCRACY OF THE USA



WHAT DO AMERICANS MEAN WHEN THEY USE THE WORD “DEMOCRACY”?
Abraham Lincoln, one of the best-loved and most respected of America's
presidents, said that the US had a government “of the people, by the people
and for the people”. He called the United Slates "a nation conceived in
liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
No one has formulated a better way of describing the principles of the
American political system, as Americans understand it. The Constitution,
laws and traditions of the United States give the people the right to
determine who will be the leader of their nation, who will make the laws
and what the laws will be. The people have the power to change the system.
The Constitution guarantees individual freedom to all.



HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DEMOCRACY

- Democracy as a form of government disappeared from ancient Greece and,
over the centuries, the translation of the principles and ideals of
democracy into practice has been very rare throughout the world. Most
people have been ruled by kings, queens, emperors or small elite groups
and, except for certain members of the nobility, the people have had no
voice in their government. That was the situation in Europe in 1492.
- By the 1700s, England had established 13 colonies in the eastern part of
what is now the United States.
- Some of the early British colonists had come to the New World in hopes of
enriching themselves; others came because. Britain forced them to leave –
they were troublemakers or people who could not pay their debts. Some came
because of the opportunity, which did not exist for them in Europe, to own
land or practice a trade.
- In the course of its long history as a nation, Great Britain had taken
several steps toward democracy. England (including Wales) had a parliament
winch made laws, and most people enjoyed a degree of individual freedom.
- William Penn, a member of the Religious Society of Friends, founded the
colony of Pennsylvania, where he set up laws protecting freedom of religion
and speech. Those laws also enabled the Pennsylvania colonists to have a
voice in their local government.
- Life in the colonies also helped strengthen democratic ideas. They had to
work together to build shelter, provide food, clear the land for farms and
in general to make their new home land livable for them. This need for
cooperation and sharing, combined with a belief in individualism,
strengthened the idea that in the New World people were equal; that no one
should have special rights and privileges.
- Each colony had its own government



WAR AND INDEPENDENCE

- The British government required people to pay taxes, but gave them no
voice in pausing the tax laws. The British motherland determined what the
colonists could produce and with whom they could trade.
- In 1774, a group of leaders from the colonies met and formed the
“Continental Congress”, which informed the king of the colonists’ belief
that, as free Englishmen, they should have a voice in determining laws that
affected them. The king and the conservative government in London paid no
heed to the concerns of the colonists, and many colonists felt that this
was an injustice, which gave them reason to demand independence from
Britain. In 1775, fighting broke out between New England militia and
British soldiers.
- On July 4, 1776, Continental Congress issued a Declaration of
Independence, primarily written by Thomas Jefferson, a farmer and lawyer
from the colony of Virginia. The Declaration described them as "free and
independent slates" and officially named them the United Stales of
America.The document says that all people are created equal, that all have
the right to “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
-With help from France, England's old enemy, and from other Europeans, the
American armies, led by George Washington, a surveyor and gentleman farmer
from Virginia, won the War of Independence. The peace treaty signed in
1783.



THE AMERICAN


POLITICAL SYSTEM



CONSTITUTION

- During the war, the states had agreed to work together by sending
representatives to a national congress patterned after the "Congress of
Delegates" that conducted the war with England. It would raise money to pay
off debts of the war, establish a money system and deal with foreign
nations in making treaties. The agreement that set up this plan of
cooperation was called the Articles of Confederation.
- Many Americans worried about the future. How could they win the respect
of other nations if the states did not pay their depts? How could they
improve .the country by building roads or canals if the stales would not
work together? They believed that the Congress needed more power.
- The plan for the government was written in very simple language in a
document called the Constitution of the United Slates. The Constitution set
up a federal system with a strong central government. A federal system is
one in which power is shared between a central authority and its
constituent parts, with some rights reserved to each. The Constitution also
called for the election of a national leader, or president.
- Two main fears shared by most Americans: one fear was that one person or
group, including the majority, might become too powerful or be able to
seize control of the country and create a tyranny, another fear was that
the new central government might weaken or take away the power of the state
governments to run their own affairs. To deal with this the Constitution
specified exactly what power central government had and which power was
reserved for the states.
- Representatives of various states noted that the Constitution did not
have any words guaranteeing the freedoms or the basic rights and privileges
of citizens. Though the Convention delegates did not think it necessary to
include such explicit guarantees, many people felt that they needed further
written protection against tyranny. So, a "Bill of Rights" was added to the
Constitution.



LEGISLATIVE BRUNCH

- can make federal laws, levy federal taxes, declare war or put foreign
treaties into effect.
• The House of Representatives: two-year terms, each member represents a
district in his state according to the population of it, 435
representatives in the United States House of Representatives.
• The Senate: six-year terms each state has two se
Умар.Ш. был тут !!!!!
 
давайте изгоним мат !!!
 
ДОБРОЙ НОЧИ ОТ Ъ
ЛОКИ ИНО
 
ДМК МЭ
 
где инфааа?