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Методичка по Английскому языку для экономистов

Методичка по Английскому языку для экономистов.
Методичка по Английскому языку для экономистов Advertising Ideas


inform, educate, persuade, and remind.
Advertising is a sophisticated form of communication that must work
with other marketing tools and business elements to be successful.
Advertising must be interruptive — that is, it must make you stop thumbing
through the newspaper or thinking about your day long enough to read or
hear the ad. Advertising must also be credible, unique, and memorable in
order to work.
And finally, assuming the actual advertising is built upon a solid
positioning strategy, enough money must be spent to provide a media
schedule for ad frequency, the most important element for ad memorability.

History of Advertising
1. Introduction
Marketing is more than just distributing goods from the manufacturer
to the final customer. It comprises all the stages between creation of the
product and the after-market which follows the eventual sale. One of these
stages is advertising. The stages are like links in a chain, and the chain
will break if one of the links is weak. Advertising is therefore as
important as every other stage or link, and each depends on the other for
success.
The product or service itself, its naming, packaging, pricing and
distribution, are all reflected in advertising, which has been called the
lifeblood of an organization. Without advertising, the products or services
cannot flow to the distributors or sellers and on to the consumers or
users.
2. Early forms
Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world, and to those
countries which are developing and becoming industrialised. In the past
when a shopkeeper or stall-holder had only to show and shout his goods to
passers-by, advertising as we know it today hardly existed. Early forms of
advertising were signs such as the inn sign, the red-and-white striped
barber's pole, the apothecary's jar of coloured liquid and the
wheelwright's wheel, some of which have survived until today.
3. Effect of urban growth
The need for advertising developed with the expansion of population
and the growth of towns with their shops and large stores; mass production
in factories; roads and railways to convey goods; and popular newspapers in
which to advertise. The large quantities of goods being produced were made
known by means of advertising to unknown customers who lived far from the
place of manufacture.
Advertising grew with the development of media, such as the coffee-
house newspapers of the seventeenth century, and the arrival of advertising
agencies nearly 200 years ago, mainly to handle government advertising.
4. Advertising and the modem world
If one looks at old pictures of horse buses in, say, late nineteenth-
century London one will see that they carry advertisements for products
famous today, a proof of the effectiveness of advertising. Thus the modern
world depends on advertising. Without it, producers and distributors would
be unable to sell, buyers would not know about and continue to remember
products or services, and the modern industrial world would collapse. If
factory output is to be maintained profitably, advertising must be powerful
and continuous. Mass production requires mass consumption which in turn
requires advertising to the mass market through the mass media.
16. Advertising involvement
Although advertising is listed as a single element it is associated
with almost every other element, borrowing from them or interpreting them.
(a) The volume, emphasis and timing of advertising will depend on the
product life cycle situation. For instance, at the introductory or
recycling stages, the weight of advertising will be heavier than at the
maturity or decline stages.
(b) Marketing research will provide evidence of motives, preferences
and attitudes which will influence not only the copy platform or
advertising theme but the choice of media through which to express it.
(c) Naming and branding may be initiated by the advertising department
or agency, and clearly plays an important role in advertisement design.
(d) The product image will be projected by advertising.
(e) The market segment will decide the tone or style of advertising,
and the choice of media.
(f) Pricing can play an important part in the appeal of the copy. Is
the product value for money, a bargain or a luxury? Pricing can be a very
competitive sales argument. People are very price conscious.
(g) The product mix has many applications. In advertising, one product
may be associated with another, or each brand may require a separate
campaign.
(h) Packaging can be a vital aspect of advertising, as when pack
recognition is sought. It is itself a form of advertising, especially at
the point-of-sale, as in a supermarket when the package often has to
identify the product and literally sell it off the shelf.
(i) Distribution involves trade advertising such as by direct mail, in
the trade press and at exhibitions.
(j) The sales force has to be familiarised with advertising campaigns
which will support their efforts in the field.
(k) Market education is a public relations activity aimed at creating
a favourable market situation in which advertising will work.
(1) Corporate and financial public relations often uses institutional
advertising in the business press.
(m) Test marketing requires a miniature advertising campaign
simulating the future national campaign.
(n) Advertising research includes copy-testing, circulation and
readership surveys and statistics, recall tests, tracking studies and cost-
per-reply and cost-per-conversion-to-sales figures.
(o) Sales promotion can augment or even replace traditional
advertising.
(p) The after-market calls for advertising to make customers aware of
post-sales services.
(q) The maintenance of customer interest and loyalty may be achieved
by advertising which promotes additional uses and accessories, or simply
reminds.


ADVERTISING
Advertising is used to create consumer interest in a product and also to
increase the sales of that product. It may be described under three
headings:
1 descriptive advertising;
2 persuasive advertising;
3 both descriptive and persuasive advertising together.
Descriptive ad
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